What is deepfake?
Deepfake is a form of technology that hackers use to impersonate themselves as others with astonishing accuracy. These deepfakes are AI-generated. Images, videos, and voices are fabricated and tampered with to produce these deepfakes. A few prominent victims of these deepfake attacks are celebrities and politicians. This dangerous technology could cause a fatal disruption of reputation and can be used by anyone to mimic someone else to target them. They only need the targeted victim’s images, videos, or audio recordings.
A bank manager in China fell victim to a phishing attack executed by a deepfake in 2020. The scam resulted in the manager transferring $35 million. This was the second time a deepfake enabled a successful phishing scheme. In the first instance, malicious actors impersonated a company’s CEO to get employees to transfer €220,000.
How does it work?
Attack actors usually have access to machine learning technology called deep learning. This enables them to learn malicious techniques that assist neutral networks to create fake existing images and videos on the targets.
Unfortunately, people are not entirely sure of the devastating consequences of deepfake. Unlike the other forms of cyber-attacks, a deepfake is a hack that can be performed by anyone who knows to use the internet or a software program. The impersonations resulting from these deepfakes are relatively convincing and are compelling representations of the actual person. There is an increasing availability of AI deepfakes in recent times that brings out two questions:
- Is anything we see or hear true?
- How do deepfakes affect identity verification?
To answer the above questions honestly, nothing we see or hear today can be trusted or relied on. And when it comes to identity verification, deepfakes have affected many people victimizing them to numerous cyber-attacks and damaging their reputations.
How are deepfakes spotted?
Though it is hard to identify such deepfake images and videos, specific methods can be applied to figure out the genuineness of the image or video. Some of them are:
- Facial and body inconsistencies: There is often an unnatural movement, distortion, or misalignment of the face or body in deepfakes.
- Uncanny valley effect: Reproducing human features imperfectly produces an uncanny appearance due to the uncanny valley effect.
- Glitches and artifacts: Deepfakes may introduce artifacts like unusual reflections, blurriness, or inconsistent lighting, which may indicate manipulation.
- Inconsistent audio: Inconsistent audio could indicate a deepfake if it does not sync correctly with the video.
- Metadata analysis: Investigating the metadata of a video file can reveal its origin, editing history, or potential manipulation.
- Reverse image search: By comparing video frames with known sources, it is possible to determine whether the video content has been altered or repurposed.
- Deepfake detection tools: Deepfake detection software uses AI-based algorithms to identify video patterns and inconsistencies to detect signs of manipulative use.
In what way does deepfake pose a security threat?
As technology evolves daily, hackers always seem to have a trick up their sleeves to bypass security systems, take advantage of other people’s information, and victimize them. Sophisticated deepfake hacks are on the rise, which requires more resilient security measures to be taken. Identifying and preventing these deepfakes makes identity validation more accessible and trustworthy. Deepfakes allow a hacker to not just mimic a person’s face by can also be used to mimic their voice and irises and bring out a replica of the victim. This shows the urgency to prevent such deepfakes. This technology cannot be hindered by can be avoided by using apt security measures that cannot be penetrated.
How to prevent deepfakes?
Preventing deepfakes is a complex challenge, but several methods can help mitigate their impact. Here are some approaches to consider:
- Develop advanced detection algorithms: Research and intensive study should be put into developing sophisticated algorithms capable of detecting and identifying deepfakes. Many advanced machine-learning techniques can be used to identify patterns, artifacts, inconsistencies, and patterns within images or videos to flag potential deepfakes.
- Create robust authentication mechanisms: Strong authentication mechanisms must be implemented to verify the authenticity and source of media content. Authentication of content can be achieved using methods such as digital signatures, watermarks, or cryptographic techniques, which can be used to verify the content’s authenticity.
- Promote media literacy and awareness: Educate the public about the existence and potential dangers of deepfakes. By raising awareness, individuals can become more sceptical and critical media consumers, reducing the impact of manipulated content.
- Encourage responsible media sharing: Educate individuals on verifying authenticity before sharing it widely with friends and family. Emphasize the importance of fact-checking and using trustworthy sources to encourage responsible behaviour.
- Develop forensic tools: Investing in developing forensic tools that can be used to analyze media content and identify signs that it has been manipulated is essential. Experts can use these tools to determine whether a photograph or a video is authentic.
- Collaborate with technology companies: Creating a collaborative environment between researchers, technology companies, and social media platforms will facilitate the developing and implementation of effective countermeasures against deepfakes through collaboration. An excellent way to stay ahead of deepfake techniques as they evolve would be to participate in knowledge sharing, resource sharing, and sharing best practices.
- Legal and policy measures: Laws and regulations should be developed to address the creation, distribution, and malicious use of deepfakes, as well as their dissemination. These measures can act as a deterrent and provide a legal framework for prosecuting offenders.
- Data sharing and benchmarking: Encourage sharing deepfake datasets and benchmarks among researchers. This can lead to improved detection algorithms, foster collaboration in the field, and facilitate the development of more accurate detection algorithms.
- Invest in AI research: Completing AI research to improve the detection and generation of deepfakes is an integral part of our strategy. Staying at the forefront of technology makes it easier to anticipate and counter emerging threats.
- User-friendly detection tools: Recognize that deep fakes are very hard to detect. Therefore, it is necessary to develop tools that are easy to use. These tools can empower users to verify the authenticity of media content before sharing it.